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Read more: Scientific articles

* Articles about the research of Rind, Bauserman & Tromovitch are on a separate page 

Baurmann, Michael C., Sexuality, Violence and Psychological After-Effects, A longitudinal study of cases of sexual assault which are reported to the police;

Published by NAMBLA

English Summary on pages 523-533 of 'Sexualität, Gewalt und psychische Folgen: Eine Längschnittuntersuchung bei Opfern sexueller Gewalt un sexuellen Norm-verletzungen anhand von angezeigten Sexualkontakten (Wiesbaden, Bundeskriminalamt Forschungsreihe Nr. 15, 1983)'. 

Berlin, Fred S.; Pedophilia and DSM-5: The Importance of Clearly Defining the Nature of a Pedophilic Disorder

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 42:404 –7, 2014 - EDITORIAL

... DSM-5 states that an indicator of a Pedophilic Disorder would be that an individual has “acted on” his sexual urges (Ref. 1, p 697). “Acted on” could mean that he has actually molested a child. On the other hand, it could also mean that he has masturbated to pedophilic fantasies or that he has viewed child pornography.
The current criteria for diagnosing a Pedophilic Disorder place some persons who have never molested a child into the same diagnostic category as those who have done so. ... As a consequence, the distinction between being sexually attracted to children in some fashion (e.g., experiencing urges to view child pornography) and experiencing urges to act on that attraction with a child can easily be lost. ...
In the face of significant criticism of its inclusion in the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has stated its intention to remove the term Pedophilic Sexual Orientation from the diagnostic manual. ...
Removing that term in response to public criticism would be a mistake. Experiencing ongoing sexual attractions to prepubescent children is, in essence, a form of sexual orientation, and acknowledging that reality can help to distinguish the mental makeup that is inherent to Pedophilia, from acts of child sexual abuse. ...
Viewing child pornography should not be considered a useful diagnostic indicator of a Pedophilic Disorder.  

Brongersma, E., An Historical Background

NAMBLA Bulletin 4-2, March 1983

Slightly over a century ago, a new and hitherto unknown kind of aggression began to arise: the aggression against people who love children and want to express their love for them with bodily tenderness. 

Quotes from
Cash, Brian Martin; Self-identifications, sexual development and well-being in minor-attracted people: an exploratory study -
A Thesis - August 2016
Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University

Most research on sexual attraction to minor children and adolescents has viewed this phenomenon as a pathology, and has used clinical and forensic study populations. This study seeks to conceptualize minor attraction as a sexual orientation, and uses a sample of minor- attracted people recruited from the internet (N = 160). Participants’ sexual identities, sexual attractions, disclosures, and well-being are investigated. 
Results indicate that minor-attracted people have varied experiences, but common themes that emerged in these areas are discussed. Regarding well-being, minor-attracted people in general had higher loneliness and lower self- esteem than the general public. But positive disclosure experiences and having some level of attraction towards adults were related to lower loneliness, and more accepting attitudes towards sex between adults and children were found to be related to higher self-esteem. In general, findings supported the conceptualization of minor attraction as a sexual orientation.

Children often fabricate stories of sexual abuse

29 May 1996

Ground-breaking New Zealand research indicating that many children fabricate stories of sexual abuse when questioned by adults is before an international forum in Paris. 

Constantine, L. L., The Effects of Early Sexual Experiences: A review and Synthesis of Research; 
From Children and Sex – Constantine & Martinson (eds) Little, Brown, Boston,

 Presented at the conference, Enfance et Sexualite, University of Quebec at Montreal, September 1979.

 This study began in 1972 as an unstructured review of the literature on the effects of incest and other types of sexual encounters between adults and children. However, as questions about childhood sexuality and particularly the effects of early experiences became subjects of considerable debate and no small controversy, it was deemed appropriate to expand the project, to include sexual encounters between children, and complete it. This review is still by no means comprehensive; it is fact, selective in that it deals with a body of research and clinical literature concerned with the outcome of childhood sexual experiences, that is, with both the immediate and the ultimate impact of the experience. 

Frederiksen, A., Pedophilia, Science and Self-deception

DPA, 1999

A Criticism of Sex Abuse Research 

Gieles, F., About 'Pedophilia' as a concept

Alcmaeon, the Utrecht [NL] Faculty Association for the Social Sciences, Jan. 1997

Summary of a lecture introducing a panel discussion on pedophilia 

Gieles, F.E.J., About Recidivism; a meta-analysis reviewed, (Hanson & Bussière, 1998)

Ipce Newsletter E6, July 1999.

In this article I will review an article about a meta-analysis of 61 recidivism studies. The authors conclude to a mean recidivism percentage of 13.4% for sexual offenders, which is lower than the mean overall recidivism percentage for all offenders. 

Gieles, Frans E. J., What has got into those people?  


My soul houses many feelings, among which also pedophilic ones: children attract me and now and then also an erotic feeling creeps up.
What is their source? Why is this a problem nowadays? How might one live with them?
How might society live with this fact? 

Gieles, F.E.J., Is pedophilia a mental disorder? Discussion in Archives of Sexual Behavior; Report 
The December 2002 issue is a special about pedophilia.

Ipce Newsletter E15, March 2003

Richard Green pleas to remove pedophilia from the DSM, the famous handbook that defines psychiatric illnesses, among which pedophilia, albeit under certain conditions.
Gunter Schmidt says that not all pedophiles are per se unscrupulous molesters; pedophiles rather have a conscience problem, a moral dilemma, and they deserve respect rather than condemnation.
Then, 21 authors give peer comments, after which Green and Schmidt reply.
Ipce members should buy and read this special issue.
For the Newsletter, I give the next report. 

Gieles, Frans .E. J.,  PhD, The Netherlands, has written A Short Comment on "Houtepen, Jenny A.B.M.; Sijtsema, Jelle J. and Bogaerts, Stefan; 
Being Sexually Attracted to Minors
Sexual Development, Coping With Forbidden Feelings, and Relieving Sexual Arousal in Self-Identified Pedophiles: 

Sympathetic research in the wrong frame - A Short Comment; 2016"
A renewing view on people with pedophile feelings who massively are willing and able to control themselves … is seen through the spectacles or within the frame of the more familiar ‘good old’ offender-model, just the people that could not control themselves.

Home Office Report says: Most child sex attacks committed by relatives, family friends

1999 by Agence France-Presse (via ClariNet)

Children are at much greater risk of sexual abuse from relatives and family friends than they are from predatory paedophiles, according to new British government research out Friday. [...]
The research found that only one in five men jailed for molesting children was likely to be caught re-offending, compared with reconviction figures of 50 percent for non-sexual offenders within two years of the original crime. 

Quotes from: 
Houtepen, Jenny A.B.M.; Sijtsema, Jelle J. and Bogaerts, Stefan; 
Being Sexually Attracted to Minors
Sexual Development, Coping With Forbidden Feelings, and Relieving Sexual Arousal in Self-Identified Pedophiles

- Department of Developmental Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands

- Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy; 22 June 2015

- Comment: JON

- PDF File 

This article aims to provide more insight into pedophilic attraction and risk and protective factors for offending in non-clinical pedophiles. 
Fifteen participants were interviewed about sexuality, coping, and sexual self-regulation. Many participants struggled with acknowledging pedophilic interest in early puberty and experienced psychological difficulties as a result. Furthermore, many committed sex offenses during adolescence when they were still discovering their feelings. 
Early recognition of risk factors and early start of interventions seem vital in preventing offending. Moreover, results suggest that risk for offending can be diminished by creating more openness about pedophilia and by providing pedophiles with social support and control. 

Nicolaï, N.J., The Consequences of Sexual Abuse of Minors - On behalf of the Commission for Examination of Sexual Abuse of Minors in the Roman-Catholic Church [* in the Netherlands] In: Rapport Commissie Deetman, Balans, 2011, Part 2. Summary and conclusions in English by Frans E J Gieles, PhD. 
In this essay, sexual abuse is, conform the scientific and juridical mores, defined as "... sexual-genital manipulation of a child below the age of sixteen, by an adult of whom the child is dependent or with whom he or she has a relationship of confidence, with the aim of satisfaction of the sexual need of the first. [...] There is an age difference, and/or a difference in power, by which the child is not able to refuse the sexual contact, which is not consensual."
Research of the later consequences of sexual abuse is done in three phases or generations of research. 
The most recent research explores what has appeared to be the most central factor: disturbance of the stress regulation. 
There is consensus about harm for the physical and emotional health, especially the attachment and sexuality, even if the consequences are invisible at first sight. They are just like a time bomb, that explodes as soon as, in adulthood, the impact of the events becomes significant.

O'Carroll, Tom, Is paedophilia violent?

A paper prepared for the World Congress of Sexology, Paris 2001

This paper challenges the appropriateness of viewing pedophilia [...] in terms of violence. The literature on personality and behavioural aspects of paedophilia is reviewed with particular reference to "preferential" as opposed to "situational" paedophilia. Evidence on harm to children commonly attributed to adult-child sexual contacts is considered, as is the validity and value of the "consent" construct in the light of recent research. The unscientific attribution of violence to paedophilia as a supposedly inherent characteristic is discussed, particularly with regard to lines of feminist analysis founded on issues of power imbalance in personal relationships. 

Quotes from
Padding, R.; Pedophilia and Conflict - Research on the conflicted relation between the presence of pedophiles and Dutch society. 
Radboud University Nijmegen - 2015
This research is centered on pedophiles and their place in Dutch society and based on the question: To what extent is there a conflict due to the presence of pedophiles in Dutch society? Data was gathered and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles and semi-structured interviews with pedophiles. In this research pedophiles are defined as people with a sexual age orientation directed towards children younger than sixteen years old. A sexual orientation does not only revolve around sexual feelings, but romantic feelings as well.

Two main results were found.
First, newspapers present a generalized image of pedophiles as people who have engaged or are likely to engage in a form of pedosexuality. This overgeneralization leads to the formation of a stigmatized stereotype, that of a criminal sexual child abuser.
Second, the respondents experience that stigma in their daily life, since they do not feel accepted by society. Instead they experience structural conflict to some extent in the form of unequal life chances. The fact that they are unable to speak out about their sexual identity can lead to difficulties in the social life, in asking for protection and professional help, and in living without fear of discovery. The latter is a form of latent violence.

  • From the Results: "The organization that is valued the most amongst the respondents, is the self-help group JON, part of the NVSH." 
  • From the Discussion: "It would be a great asset to find out possibilities to strengthen and protect associations such as the NVSH and its self-help group. 

Powels, Alvin, Harvard Researchers Say Children Need Touching and Attention

Harvard Gazette

America's "let them cry" attitude toward children may lead to more fears and tears among adults, according to two Harvard Medical School researchers.
Instead of letting infants cry, American parents should keep their babies close, console them when they cry, and bring them to bed with them, where they'll feel safe, according to Michael Commons and Patrice Miller, researchers at the Medical School's Department of Psychiatry.
The pair examined child-rearing practices here and in other cultures and say the widespread American practice of putting babies in separate beds - even separate rooms - and not responding to their cries may lead to more incidents of post-traumatic stress and panic disorders among American adults. 

Prescot, James W., Body Pleasure and the Origins of Violence

 The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November 1975, pp 10-20

A neuropsychologist contends that the greatest threat to world peace comes from those nations which have the most depriving environments for their children and which are most repressive of sexual affection and female sexuality. 

Sandfort, Theo, Constructive Questions Regarding Paedophilia

Found on the web, but source & date unknown

In the literature concerning paedophilia, it is generally seen as a paraphilia or a perversion.  Here I shall consider whether all sexual involvement between adults and children is appropriately labeled paedophilia, and whether it might not be useful to consider paedophilia as an identity. 

Stanley, Jessica L., Bartholomew Kim, & Oram Doug, 
Gay and Bisexual Men's Age-Discrepant Childhood Sexual Experiences 
The Journal of Sex Research 41-4

This study examined childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in gay and bisexual men. We compared

  • the conventional definition of CSA based on age difference with
  • a modified definition of CSA based on perception [CSA-P or CSE - Child Sexual Experience] to evaluate which definition best accounted for problems in adjustment.

In conclusion, the standard convention of defining age-based childhood sexual abuse as uniformly negative, harmful, and coercive may not accurately represent gay and bisexual men's sexual experiences.
Combining perception-based CSA experience with noncoercive, nonnegative, nonabusive experiences, as the age-based definition does, presents a misleading picture of childhood sexual abuse.
An age-based CSA definition inflates prevalence rates of childhood sexual abuse and inaccurately suggests that the maladjustment associated with perception-based CSA [CSA-P or CSE] experiences applies to all childhood age-discrepant sexual encounters.


Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan & Waterson, Elissa, Pathways from child maltreatment to juvenile offending;

 aic.gov.au [Book, and a .PDF-Paper to download]

The authors examine 11 predictive factors for youth offending, and find that children who suffer maltreatment are more likely to offend. Physical abuse and neglect are significant predictive factors, but sexual and emotional abuse are not. 

West, D.J., Boys and Sexual Abuse: An English Opinion

Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12/1998

In view of the popular stereotype of priestly pederasts chasing after choir boys and the many newspaper reports of scoutmasters and the like "interfering" with boys under their care, the initial lack of professional interest seems odd, but probably reflects a tradition that boys should be able to look after themselves. 

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